Could chronic pain and spread of pain sensation be induced and maintained by glial activation?
An injury often starts with acute physiological pain, which becomes inflammatory or neuropathic, and may sometimes become chronic. It has been proposed recently that activated glial cells, astrocytes and microglia within the central nervous system could maintain the pain sensation even after the original injury or inflammation has healed, and convert it into chronic by altering neuronal excitability. Glial cell activation has also been proposed to be involved in the phenomenon of spread of pain sensation ipsilaterally or to the contralateral side (i.e. mirror image pain). Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, released due to an inflammatory process, interact with the endothelial cells of the blood–spinal cord and blood–brain barriers. The barriers open partially and substances may influence adjacent glial cells. Such substances are also released from neurones carrying the ‘pain message’ all the way from the injury to the cerebral cortex. Pro-inflammatory cytokines may be released from the microglial cells, and astroglial Ca2+-transients or oscillations may spread within the astroglial networks. One theory is that Ca2+-oscillations could facilitate the formation of new synapses. These new synapses could establish neuronal contacts for maintaining and spreading the pain sensation. If this theory holds true, it is possible that Ca2+ waves, production of cytokines and growth factors could be modified by selective anti-inflammatory drugs to achieve a balance in the activities of the different intercellular and intracellular processes. This paper reviews current knowledge about glial mechanisms underlying the phenomena of chronic pain and spread of the pain sensation.