Neurohormonal influences on maintenance and reversal of two-kidney one-clip renal hypertension
The factors involved in maintenance and reversal of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) in the chronic two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rat (2K1C-RHR) are still debated. The reduction in MAP after reversal of 2K1C hypertension has been ascribed either to release of a renal medullary depressor hormone (RMDH) or suppression of the renin–angiotensin and/or sympathetic nervous system. We studied in conscious rats: (i) The effects of angiotensin II receptor blockade (ARB; candesartan), sympathetic blockade (propranolol and phentolamine) or a combination on MAP in 6-week long 2K1C-RHR; (ii) The effects of reversal of 2K1C hypertension by removal of the constricting clip (unclipping, UC) or nephrectomy (Nx) on MAP, plasma renin activity (PRA) and noradrenaline (NA) spillover rates. The results show that: (i) MAP in the 2K1C-RHR was almost normalized by ARB but not significantly affected by the sympathetic blockade. The combination was not more effective than ARB alone; (ii) UC and Nx reduced MAP in 2K1C to similar levels as ARB. No significant changes in PRA or catecholamines could be detected in UC and Nx groups. We conclude that hypertension in 2K1C-RHR is maintained by the renin–angiotensin system without much contribution from the sympathetic nervous system. Furthermore, we found no evidence that UC of our model of 2K1C was associated with a generalized decrease in sympathetic tone or substantial release of RMDH from the unclipped kidney. Thus, we conclude that in the present model of 2K1C, both maintenance and reversal of hypertension are controlled by the renin–angiotensin system.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Go¨teborg University, Go¨teborg, Sweden. 2: Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Go¨teborg University, Go¨teborg, Sweden. 3: Baker Medical Research Institute, Prahran, Victoria, Australia
Publication date: 2002-07-01