α-Vitamin E derivative, RRR-α-tocopheryloxybutyric acid inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cells
Aim: To investigate the activity of RRR-α-tocopheryloxybutyric acid (TOB), an ether analog of RRR-α-tocopheryl succinate (VES), in prostate cancer cells. Methods: VES and TOB were used to treat prostate cancer LNCaP, PC3, and 22Rv1 cells and primary-cultured prostate fibroblasts. The proliferation rates were determined by MTT assay, the cell viabilities were determined by trypan blue exclusion assay, and the cell deaths were evaluated by using Cell Death Detection ELISA kit. The protein expression levels were determined by Western blot analysis. Results: The MTT growth assay demonstrated that TOB could effectively suppress the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, but not normal prostate fibroblasts. Mechanism dissections revealed that TOB reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells similar to VES. In addition, both TOB and VES suppressed prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at the transcriptional level leading to reduced PSA protein expression. Furthermore, vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression increased after the addition of TOB. Conclusion: Our data suggests that the VES derivative, TOB, is effective in inhibiting prostate cancer cell proliferation, suggesting that TOB could be used for both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic purposes in the future.
Document Type: Original Article
Affiliations: 1: Departments of Urology and Pathology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA 2: Department of Chemistry, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
Publication date: 2007-01-01