Evaluation of window flight traps for effectiveness at monitoring dead wood-associated beetles: the effect of ethanol lure under contrasting environmental conditions
1 Subsequent to the diversity of saproxylic beetles being proposed as a management tool in forestry, more explicit knowledge about the efficiency and selective properties of beetle sampling methods is needed.
2 We compared saproxylic beetle assemblages caught by alcohol-baited or unbaited window traps in different forest contexts. Considering that trap attractiveness depends on kairomone concentrations, we appraised whether the trap efficiency was influenced by trap environment (openness and local supply of fresh dead wood).
3 Saproxylic beetles were sampled using 48 cross-vane window flight traps, arranged in paired designs (alcohol-baited/unbaited), in eight ancient and eight recent gaps (open stands), and eight closed-canopy control stands in an upland beech forest in the French Pyrenees.
4 Baited traps were more efficient than unbaited traps in terms of abundance and richness in our deciduous forests. The ethanol lure did not have any repellent effect on the individual response of saproxylic taxa.
5 The influence of local environmental conditions on trap attractiveness was observed. Openness had a significant moderate effect on species richness. Trap attractiveness was slightly reduced in the alcohol-saturated environment of recent gaps probably due to a disruption by local fresh dead-wood concentrations of the kairomonal response of saproxylic beetles to baited traps (‘alcohol disruption’).
6 Because the ethanol lure enhanced the probability of species detection, it may be useful in early-warning surveillance, monitoring and control of wood borers, despite slight influences of local conditions on baited trap efficiency.