Skip to main content

A flexible sand coating (Conniflex) for the protection of conifer seedlings against damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis

Buy Article:

$43.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


1 A new method for the physical protection of conifer seedlings against feeding damage by Hylobius abietis (L.), is described and evaluated in field trials in Swedish forest plantations.

2 The lower 60% of the stem of the seedling is protected by the Conniflex coating, consisting of fine sand (grain size = 0.2 mm) embedded in an acrylate dispersion that remains flexible after drying.

3 Seedlings are treated in the nursery by a large-scale application procedure involving four steps: (i) spraying the seedlings with water; (ii) application of fixative to the lower sections of the stems, (iii) application of fine sand to the fixative; and (iv) drying of the fixative.

4 A field experiment over three seasons demonstrated a significant increase in survival for coated seedlings compared with untreated seedlings. The survival rate increased from 29% to 97% for Scots pine and from 26% to 86% for Norway spruce. Coating the lower 30% of the stem (instead of 60%) provided inferior protection, resulting in only 64% survival in spruce.

5 Field trials in 11 commercial plantation areas indicated that the Conniflex sand coating was as effective in protecting seedlings as treatment with the insecticide imidacloprid.

6 The new method of coating conifer seedlings with fine sand provides an effective and environmentally sound alternative to insecticide treatment.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Curculionidae; Hylobius abietis; conifer seedling; feeding barrier; imidacloprid; insecticide; large pine weevil; particle coating; physical protection; reforestation; sand

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 February 2009

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more