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(R)-(+)-limonene, kairomone for Dastarcus helophoroides, a natural enemy of longhorned beetles

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1 Chemical cues involved in host location by Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae), a parasitoid of Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, Monochamus alternatus Hope, Massicus raddei (Blessig), Apriona germari (Hope), Apriona swainsoni (Hope) and Batocera horsfielde (Hope) in the family Cerambycidae, were investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer. Responses of D. helophoroides adults toward odour sources from their host (M. raddei) and host tree (Quercus mongolicus Fisch. ex. Turcz.) were tested in either no-choice or two-way choice tests. Wood with larval tunnels and larvae frass were attractive to D. helophoroides. Both sexes showed attraction to wood with larval tunnels.

2 Volatile chemicals emitted from wood with larval tunnels and larval frass were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Several compounds identified from these sources, including α-pinene, -pinene, Δ-3-carene, limonene and -myrcene, were tested against D. helophoroides in the same Y-tube olfactometer.

3 The result showed that D. helophoroides adults were attracted to (R)-(+)-limonene, with or without the background odour from uninfested fresh wood. This may suggest that (R)-(+)-limonene is an important kairomone for this parasitic beetle.

4 Dose-dependent response of D. helophoroides adults to (R)-(+)-limonene indicated that D. helophoroides adults showed significant attraction to (R)-(+)-limonene when release rates exceeded 2.08 g/h in Y-tube olfactometer tests. Moreover, significantly more A. glabripennis larvae were parasitized by D. helophoroides in the presence of R-(+)-limonene, relative to the control in cage experiments.

Keywords: Host searching; Massicus raddei; R-(+)-limonene; Y-tube olfactometer; natural enemy; tritrophic interaction; wood-boring beetle

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China

Publication date: November 1, 2008

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