Skip to main content

Factors affecting settlement rate of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, on eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis

Buy Article:

$51.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)



1 We assessed the importance of several factors potentially affecting the settlement rate of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) on uninfested foliage of the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. We conducted our experiments in Massachusetts (U.S.A.) with overwintering sistens adelgids, and applied standard densities of infested foliage to uninfested branches in a planned multiple-comparison design.

2 Settlement rates of progrediens crawlers produced by the overwintering sistens were highest when adelgid-infested foliage was loosely attached to uninfested foliage and both branches were then enclosed in a mesh sleeve.

3 Early-emerging crawlers settled at a higher rate than did late-emerging crawlers.

4 Increasing the density of infested branches did not affect settlement rates.

5 We also tested whether less severe winter conditions improved settlement, and found that overwintering infested foliage in a refrigerator decreased settlement rate relative to foliage overwintered outdoors.

6 Our results suggest a protocol for adelgid inoculations that could substantially increase the success rate of experimental manipulations and encourage additional research on the population dynamics of this pest.

Keywords: Adelges tsugae; Tsuga canadensis; Tsuga caroliniana; herbivory; inoculation

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, U.S.A.

Publication date: August 1, 2007


Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more