Abstract 1 The greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is a serious pest of Sorghum bicolor L. and small grains in the Southern Plains of the U.S.A. Use of resistant cultivars, the major greenbug management strategy, has been challenged by the rapid development of new greenbug biotypes that overcome plant resistance. 2 We used a high-throughput amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting method to examine genetic divergence among eight greenbug biotypes (B, C, E, G, I and K, New York and South Carolina). Clustering analysis based on 1775 scored AFLP markers clearly showed that biotypes (C, E, I and K), which are able to infest sorghum fields, share more common polymorphisms among themselves than with other biotypes. 3 This result suggests that common genetic factors exist among these biotypes, enabling them to predominate and thrive in monoculture crops. Our study demonstrated the sensitivity of AFLP in obtaining large quantities of biotype-associated polymorphic information across the entire greenbug genome.