Development of an improved attractive lure for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)
1 The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is an exotic pest of pine, Pinus spp., and was first discovered in North America in 1992.
2 Although primary attraction to host volatiles has been clearly demonstrated for T. piniperda, the existence and role of secondary attraction to insect-produced pheromones have been widely debated.
3 Currently, commercial lures for T. piniperda include only the host volatiles α-pinene in North America and α-pinene, terpinolene and (+)-3-carene in Europe. Several potential pheromone candidates have been identified for T. piniperda.
4 We tested various combinations of host volatiles and pheromone candidates in Michigan, U.S.A., and Ontario, Canada, to determine an optimal blend.
5 Attraction of T. piniperda was significantly increased when trans-verbenol (95% pure, 3.2%cis-verbenol content) was added with or without myrtenol to α-pinene or to blends of α-pinene and other kairomones and pheromone candidates.
6 Our results, together with other research demonstrating that trans-verbenol is produced by T. piniperda, support the designation of trans-verbenol as a pheromone for T. piniperda. A simple operational lure consisting of α-pinene and trans-verbenol is recommended for optimal attraction of T. piniperda.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Great Lakes Forestry Centre, 1219 Queen Street East, Sault Ste Marie, Ontario P6A 2E5, Canada, 2: Phero Tech, Inc., 7572 Progress Way, Delta, British Columbia V4G 1E9, Canada, 3: USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, 1407 S. Harrison Road, Room 220, East Lansing, MI 48823, U.S.A., 4: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Forestry Management Branch, Suite 400, 70 Foster Drive, Sault Ste Marie, Ontario P6A 6V5, Canada
Publication date: 2003-11-01