Colonization of vineyards by Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae): dispersal from surrounding plants as indicated by random amplified polymorphism DNA typing
Abstract:1 Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) is the most important predatory mite found in vineyards of southern France. This mite also occurs in surrounding uncultivated areas from where it disperses to colonize adjacent vineyards
2 To determine accurately origins of immigrant mites and to study their establishment in vineyards, a study using RAPD markers (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA) was performed. Females of K. aberrans were sampled on leaves collected in an experimental vineyard, and from several adjacent areas including neighbouring vine plots and natural plants, both of which harboured high densities of the mite. Samples were taken in May and July before and after major dispersal of K. aberrans into the experimental plot occurred.
3 For both dates, genetic distances within population were lower than between populations and three groupings of mites were observed. Strong relationships were observed between (1) females from different parts of the same experimental vineyard (variety Cabernet-Sauvignon), (2) females from several plants in the woody margin neighbouring this experimental plot, and (3) females from two neighbouring vineyards (variety Carignan). Populations seemed to be structured and no correlation between genetic and geographical distances was observed. Hence, definitive conclusions about origins of migrants were not possible.
4 Once in a vineyard, mites are probably exposed to selection pressures (i.e. pesticide applications or vine variety characteristics) that largely determine differentiation of populations. Thus, despite many immigrants moving into vineyards, our study indicated that there was limited survival or reproduction of immigrants. Further studies of within vineyard selection factors and impacts on immigrant mites are needed to determine the influence of natural colonization on grape pest management.