The history and control of the pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea (D. & S.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Scotland from 1976 to 2000
1 The pine beauty moth, Panolis flammea, has been a serious pest of lodgepole pine plantations in Scotland since 1976. It historically feeds on native Scots pine throughout Europe but population levels of P. flammea on this host have never been high enough to cause tree mortality in the U.K.
2 This paper reviews recent advances in the biology of the pest and documents control programmes from 1976 to 1999.
3 There has been practically uninterrupted population monitoring of P. flammea from 1977 to the present day in Scottish lodgepole pine plantations. Intervention with chemical spraying has often been necessary.
4 The population data suggest that populations of P. flammea may have had a cyclic pattern over the monitoring period, with outbreaks occurring at regular intervals of between 6 and 7 years.
5 The amplitude of population cycles was large during the 1970s and 1980s, but has dampened in recent years. Natural enemies are believed to contribute to this trend. Fungal disease, specifically, appears to have had a greater effect on pest populations in recent years than in the past and is suggested to have contributed significantly to the population dynamics observed since 1990.
Document Type: Review Article
Affiliations: 1: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH26 0QB, 2: Forest Insect Surveys, 125a High Street, Aberlour, AB38 9PB, 3: Forestry Commission Northern Research Station, Roslin, EH25 9SY, 4: Department of Biology, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7PY and 5: Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Banchory, Hill of Brathens, Banchory, AB31 4BY, U.K.
Publication date: August 1, 2001