Egg allocation by Bracon hylobii Ratz., the principal parasitoid of the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.), and implications for host suppression
1 The braconid parasitoid Bracon hylobii Ratz. is one of the few specialist natural enemies of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis L., a destructive pest of conifer transplants. An assessment of its role as an agent of biological control requires a detailed knowledge of the allocation of its reproductive effort.
2 Parasitoid females were continuously observed in laboratory culture with individually reared host larvae in bark discs. The outcome of sequential parasitoid–host encounters was recorded by subsequent examination of hosts and by rearing all parasitoids.
3 Parasitoids avoided ovipositing on host larvae < 100 mg fresh weight, even though such larvae represented sufficient biomass for complete parasitoid development. All larger larvae were vulnerable to attack, which leaves a window of vulnerability for parasitoids of about 90% of weevil larval life.
4 Parasitoids presented with a range of host sizes showed no preference above 100 mg for the size of host first attacked, but allocated more eggs and a greater total handling time to larger hosts.
5 Most eggs were deposited on the first host attacked, with progressively fewer allocated to subsequent hosts. However, oviposition experience did not affect the time spent on the next host.
6 From these results it is anticipated that when weevil larval size is reduced by less favourable feeding substrates, fewer parasitoid eggs will be allocated to each but more host larvae will ultimately be attacked.
7 Generation time, host finding, oviposition rate, clutch size, life expectancy and diapause induction are strongly affected by temperature. Life expectancy is substantially shorter for parasitoids deprived of non-host food supplement. At 15 and 20 °C the number of hosts attacked and the number of eggs deposited decreased with female age.
8 Bracon hylobii is inevitably poorly synchronized with a variable life-cycle host; it is egg-limited and can enter diapause at a relatively high field temperature. None of these characteristics suggest that it could stabilize the abundance of its host below an economically acceptable threshold density. However, the reproductive potential of the parasitoid suggests that it could make a significant contribution to larval mortality and suppress adult recruitment, thus complementing other control strategies.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Environmental Research Group, University of Ulster, BT52 1SA, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, U.K.
Publication date: February 1, 2001