Alcohol‐related negative consequences among drinkers around the world
Aims This paper examines (i) gender and country differences in negative consequences related to drinking; (ii) relative rates of different consequences; and (iii) country‐level predictors of consequences.
setting and participants Multi‐level analyses used survey data from the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) collaboration.
Measurements Measures included 17 negative consequences grouped into (i) high endorsement acute, (ii) personal
and (iii) social. Country‐level measures included average frequency and quantity of drinking, percentage who were current drinkers, gross domestic product (GDP) and Human Development Index (HDI).
Findings Overall, the three groupings of consequences were reported by
44%, 12% and 7% of men and by 31%, 6% and 3% of women, respectively. More men than women endorsed all consequences, but gender differences were greatest for consequences associated with chronic drinking and social consequences related to male roles. The highest prevalence of consequences was
in Uganda and lowest in Uruguay. Personal and social consequences were more likely in countries with higher usual quantity, fewer current drinkers and lower scores on GDP and HDI. However, significant interactions with individual‐level quantity indicated a stronger relationship between
consequences and usual quantity among drinkers in countries with lower quantity, more current drinkers and higher scores on GDP and HDI.
Conclusions Both gender and country need to be taken into consideration when assessing adverse drinking consequences. Individual measures
of alcohol consumption and country‐level variables are associated with experiencing such consequences. Additionally, country‐level variables affect the strength of the relationship between usual quantity consumed by individuals and adverse consequences.
Document Type: Research Article
Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, London, Ontario, Canada
Social Epidemiology of Alcohol and Drug Use, Department of Health Promotion, University Maastricht, Maastricht, the Netherlands
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Concordia University, Montreal, Québec, Canada
Addiction Info Switzerland, Lausanne, Switzerland
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA
Alcohol Research Group, Public Health Institute, Emeryville, CA, USA
Department of Psychology, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Publication date: August 1, 2011
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Wilsnack, Sharon C.
Greenfield, Thomas K.