Skip to main content

Risk factors for drug dependence among out-patients on opioid therapy in a large US health-care system

Buy Article:

$43.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Our study sought to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for opioid drug dependence among out-patients on long-term opioid therapy in a large health-care system. Methods 

Using electronic health records, we identified out-patients receiving 4+ physician orders for opioid therapy in the past 12 months for non-cancer pain within a large US health-care system. We completed diagnostic interviews with 705 of these patients to identify opioid use disorders and assess risk factors. Results 

Preliminary analyses suggested that current opioid dependence might be as high as 26% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 22.0–29.9] among the patients studied. Logistic regressions indicated that current dependence was associated with variables often in the medical record, including age <65 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.33, P = 0.001], opioid abuse history (OR = 3.81, P < 0.001), high dependence severity (OR = 1.85, P = 0.001), major depression (OR = 1.29, P = 0.022) and psychotropic medication use (OR = 1.73, P = 0.006). Four variables combined (age, depression, psychotropic medications and pain impairment) predicted increased risk for current dependence, compared to those without these factors (OR = 8.01, P < 0.001). Knowing that the patient also had a history of severe dependence and opioid abuse increased this risk substantially (OR = 56.36, P < 0.001). Conclusion 

Opioid misuse and dependence among prescription opioid patients in the United States may be higher than expected. A small number of factors, many documented in the medical record, predicted opioid dependence among the out-patients studied. These preliminary findings should be useful in future research efforts.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Drug abuse; drug dependence; opioids; out-patients; pain management; prescription drugs

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Center for Health Research, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA, 2: Department of Neurology, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA, 3: Department of Pain Medicine, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA, 4: Weis Center for Research, Geisinger Health System, Danville, PA, USA and

Publication date: 2010-10-01

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more