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Smoking cessation in methadone maintenance

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Abstract Aims

To evaluate relapse prevention (relapse prevention) and contingency management (contingency management) for optimizing smoking cessation outcomes using nicotine replacement therapy for methadone-maintained tobacco smokers. Design

Experimental, 2 (relapse prevention)×2 (contingency management) repeated measures design using a platform of nicotine replacement therapy featuring a 2-week baseline period, followed by randomization to 12weeks of treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up visits. Setting

Three narcotic treatment centers in Los Angeles. Participants

One hundred and seventy-five participants who met all inclusion and no exclusion criteria. Intervention

Participants received 12weeks of nicotine replacement therapy and assignment to one of four conditions: patch-only, relapse prevention + patch, contingency management + patch and relapse prevention + contingency management + patch. Measurements

Thrice weekly samples of breath (analyzed for carbon monoxide) and urine (analyzed for metabolites of opiates and cocaine) and weekly self-reported numbers of cigarettes smoked. Findings

Participants (73.1%) completed 12weeks of treatment. During treatment, those assigned to receive contingency management showed statistically higher rates of smoking abstinence than those not assigned to receive contingencies (F3,4680=6.3, P=0.0003), with no similar effect observed for relapse prevention. At follow-up evaluations, there were no significant differences between conditions. Participants provided more opiate and cocaine-free urines during weeks when they met criteria for smoking abstinence than during weeks when they did not meet these criteria (F1,2054=14.38, P=0.0002; F1,2419=16.52, P<0.0001). Conclusions

Contingency management optimized outcomes using nicotine replacement therapy for reducing cigarette smoking during treatment for opiate dependence, although long-term effects are not generally maintained. Findings document strong associations between reductions in cigarette smoking and reductions in illicit substance use during treatment.

Keywords: Contingency management; methadone maintenance; relapse prevention; smoking cessation

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Friends Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 2: SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, Los Angeles, CA

Publication date: October 1, 2002


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