Neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity in rat urinary bladder detrusor: participation in M3 and M4 muscarinic receptor function
1 The aim of this paper was to determine the different signalling cascades involved in contraction of the rat urinary bladder detrusor muscle mediated via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (muscarinic AChR). Contractile responses, phosphoinositides (IPs) accumulation, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and cyclic GMP (cGMP) production were measured to determine the reactions associated with the effect of cholinergic agonist carbachol. The specific muscarinic AChR subtype antagonists and different inhibitors of the enzymatic pathways involved in muscarinic receptor-dependent activation of NOS and cGMP were tested.
2 Carbachol stimulation of M3 and M4 muscarinic AChR increased contractility, IPs accumulation, NOS activity and cGMP production. All of these effects were selectively blunted by 4-DAMP and tropicamide, M3 and M4 antagonists respectively.
3 The inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), calcium/calmodulin (CaM), neuronal NOS (nNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase, but not of protein kinase C and endothelial NOS (eNOS), inhibited the carbachol action on detrusor contractility. These inhibitors also attenuated the muscarinic receptor-dependent increase in cGMP and activation of NOS.
4 In addition, sodium nitroprusside and 8-bromo-cGMP, induced negative relaxant effect.
5 The results obtained suggest that carbachol activation of M3 and M4 muscarinic AChRs, exerts a contractile effect on rat detrusor that is accompanied by an increased production of cGMP and nNOS activity. The mechanism appears to occur secondarily to stimulation of IPs turnover via PLC activation. This in turn, triggers cascade reactions involving CaM, leading to activation of nNOS and soluble guanylate cyclase. They, in turn, exert a modulator inhibitory cGMP-mediated mechanism limiting the effect of muscarinic AChR stimulation of the bladder.