Using psychology in education: Bridging different worldviews
Psychological theory and research, as well as educational research in general, has had limited impact on the widespread improvement of educational practices. A variety of reasons for this situation have been suggested, most recently the lack of methodological rigour. Another possible explanation involves the conceptualizations and metaphors used to think about education and the relationship between psychological theory and educational practices. The different worldviews, questions and agendas of researchers and teachers are discussed from several perspectives. It is suggested that the tendency to oversimplify the nature of learning in natural environments, the complexity of learning in classrooms and limitations of the traditional linear model of research-to-practice create problems in trying to use psychological knowledge in education. Several alternative conceptions are suggested, including an engineering metaphor and a marketing metaphor.