Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$43.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Multiple dimensions and textures of transcendence are evoked not just by reflection on humans in their relationship with God and community but also by encounter with bonobos—primates that are very close genetic kin with humans. The promise for theological reflection is rooted in bonobo social adaptation as a highly cooperative species. Bonobo sexual behavior accompanies and expresses a high level of social intelligence. The point of my project is not a scientific one intended to argue persuasively for individual self-awareness or self-transcendence in bonobos. Instead, it emphasizes connectedness, interdependence, and sociality as windows on transcendence. Such a view does not require consciousness or intellectual recognition of self-in-relation, but it certainly presumes embodiment of self-in-relation. Various textures of transcendence reflect multidirectional relationships among Pan paniscus (bonobos), Homo sapiens, and the Sacred.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: bonobo; immanence; language acquisition; panentheism; process thought; social organization; transcendence

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Professor of Theology and Philosophy of Religion at Saint Paul School of Theology, 5123 E. Truman Road, Kansas City, MO 64127;, Email: [email protected]

Publication date: 01 September 2009

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more