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Barbour's Fourfold Way: Problems with His Taxonomy of Science-religion Relationships

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In this paper several problems are raised concerning Ian Barbour's four ways of interrelating science and religion—Conflict, Independence, Dialogue, and Integration—as put forward in such publications as his highly influential Religion in an Age of Science (1990) and widely adopted by other writers in this field. The authors argue that this taxonomy is not very useful or analytically helpful, especially to historians seeking to understand past engagements between science and religion.

Keywords: Ian Barbour; conflict; dialogue; independence; integration; science-religion relationship

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: University of Leeds

Publication date: December 1, 2001

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