Road Reduction Filtering for GPS-GIS Navigation
A novel method of map matching using the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been developed for civilian use, which uses digital mapping data to infer the systematic position errors of less than 100m which result largely from ‘selective availability’ (S/A) imposed by the US military. Selective availability was switched off on the 2nd of May 2000, and is to be replaced with ‘regional denial capabilities in lieu of global degradation’. The system tracks a vehicle on all possible roads (road centre-lines) in a computed error region, then uses a method of rapidly detecting inappropriate road centre-lines from the set of all those possible. This is called the Road Reduction Filter (RRF) algorithm. Point positioning is computed using C/A code pseudorange measurements direct from a GPS receiver. The least squares estimation is performed in the software developed for the experiment described in this paper. Virtual differential GPS (VDGPS) corrections are computed and used from a vehicle's previous positions, thus providing an autonomous alternative to DGPS for in-car navigation and fleet management. Height aiding is used to augment the solution and reduce the number of satellites required for a position solution. Ordnance Survey (OS) digital map data was used for the experiment, i.e. OSCAR 1 m resolution road centre-line geometry and Land Form PANORAMA 1:50,000, 50 m-grid digital terrain model (DTM). Testing of the algorithm is reported and results are analysed. Vehicle positions provided by RRF are compared with the ‘true’ position determined using high precision (cm) GPS carrier phase techniques. It is shown that height aiding using a DTM and the RRF significantly improve the accuracy of position provided by inexpensive single frequency GPS receivers.
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