On incidental dermal exposure to chemicals in water, a key exposure factor is the amount of water adhering to skin. Although soil adherence factors have been developed for risk assessment, measurements of water adherence on human skin have not been described. In the Environmental Protection
Agency's (EPA's) dermal risk assessment guidance, dermal dose from environmental exposures is based upon the flux rate across the skin, which assumes that an unlimited amount of chemical is available for absorption. This assumption is applicable to certain exposure scenarios such as swimming
and bathing. However, exposures to contaminated water frequently involve scenarios where the available chemical is limited by the amount of water adhering to the skin, for example, during accidental splashes.