CSP Deposition to the Alveolar Region of the Lung: Implications of Cigarette Design
Ventilated cigarettes were designed to reduce the levels of smoke under machine testing conditions; however, smokers alter their smoking pattern to compensate for the reduction in yields. A relative shift in incidence of lung cancer from the more central lung airways to the alveolar region has also been associated with ventilated cigarette use. Validated mathematical models indicate that particle deposition patterns in the lung depend on particle size and inhalation behavior, including inhalation volume, flow rate, and breath-hold time. This article finds that most mathematical models underpredict total cigarette smoke particulate (CSP) deposition in the lung, likely because they do not account for coagulation, hygroscopicity, and cloud dynamics, which may increase the effective particle diameter of CSP reaching the lung tissue. The models that include these processes indicate that puff volume would be unlikely to affect particle deposition in the lung, but puff time, inhalation depth, breath-hold time, and exhalation time may affect total deposition. Most compensation appears to occur through a combination of increased puff volume and puff flow, with possible increases in inhalation depth and breath-hold time. The complex interaction between the extent of cigarette ventilation, which can affect puffing/inhalation behavior, CSP concentration, and CSP size with CSP dose to the alveolar versus more central lung airways is described. Deposition efficiency in the alveoli could plausibly be increased through compensation, but it is still unclear whether compensation could sufficiently alter patterns of CSP deposition in the lung to elicit a shift in lung cancer sites.