Skip to main content

Shepard's Universal Law Supported by Honeybees in Spatial Generalization

Buy Article:

$51.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)


An animal that is rewarded for a response in one situation (the S+) is likely to respond to similar but recognizably different stimuli, the ubiquitous phenomenon of stimulus generalization. On the basis of functional analyses of the probabilistic structure of the world, Shepard formulated a universal law of generalization, claiming that generalization gradients, as a function of the appropriately scaled distance of a stimulus from S+, should be exponential in shape. This law was tested in spatial generalization in honeybees. Based on theoretically derived scales, generalization along both the dimensions of the distance from a landmark and the direction to a landmark followed Shepard's law. Support in an invertebrate animal increases the scope of the law, and suggests that the ecological structure of the world may have driven the evolution of cognitive structures in diverse animals.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia

Publication date: 2000-09-01

  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more