Photo Orientation Under Unstable Conditions: A Robust Trial and Error Approach Using Range Ratios
Relative orientation is one of the fundamental steps in forming a photogrammetric model. Whilst relative orientation is straightforward in most cases of aerial photogrammetry this may not be the case in close range photogrammetry where the nature of the photographs and the cameras being used often raise unfamiliar problems. This paper addresses the problem of performing relative orientation of non-metric photographs under unstable conditions where there are no ground control points and the ray intersection geometry is poor. The relative orientation problem is approached from several viewpoints, including a method that relies on little information about the exterior or relative orientation parameters. The solution is based on an iterative process, in which a set of three virtual control points (VCPs) is created, using photo coordinates and range ratios. The validity of the VCPs is checked during every iteration by an estimation of the coplanarity condition using two or more conjugate checkpoints. During the iteration a database is formed, which is then used to obtain a net of VCPs that fulfil the coplanarity condition for the checkpoints. The VCPs are then used to compute the “relative” exterior orientation by space resection. The proposed method was tested on both simulated and real photographs and was found to have some advantages over more commonly used techniques.