The dynamics of artisanal and small-scale mining reform
Artisanal and small-scale mining are activities that have long been established in many developing countries, employing millions of people globally, either directly or in affiliated industries. Also, such activities are deplored for their adverse environmental impacts and their general avoidance of governments, tax collectors and other regulators. Decades of work have gone into addressing these problems, but with limited overall progress in evidence. Going back to some of the key dynamic relationships involved in artisanal mining and small-scale mining, the need for policy reform that gives consistent and effective incentives is argued to be the foundation on which other discussions about environmental protection, sustainability and livelihoods can be built.