This study represents an attempt to operationalize and validate the civil religion concept on four different national samples. The cultural heritage of these countries varies greatly, and according toSamuel Huntington's (1994)classification, they belong to three different civilizations. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to confirm the statistical adequacy of a proposed civil religion scale at the national and at the cross-cultural level. Civil religion proved to be a separate dimension from general religiosity, as well as from traditionalism, both at the cross-cultural and at the national level, although closely linked to these. Of the latter two background variables, civil religion proved to be linked more to traditionalism.