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Inward, Outward, Upward Prayer: Scale Reliability and Validation

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This study provides support for a model that conceptualizes prayers as the means to establish cognitive connections in three directions: inward (self-connection); outward (human-human connection); and upward (human-divine connections). A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrates a single general prayer factor divisible into three subfactors that are in turn comprised of eight discrete scales. Measures of general religiosity, the need for structure, religious styles of coping, well-being, life-satisfaction, and belief in the paranormal provide evidence of convergent and divergent validity for the theory of prayer as a mechanism for inward, outward, and upward connections.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Kevin L. Ladd is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Indiana University South Bend, 1700 Mishawaka Ave., South Bend, IN 46634-7111., Email: 2: Bernard Spilka is Professor Emeritus at the University of Denver, 2100 S. Race St., Denver, CO 80210., Email:

Publication date: 2006-06-01

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