The Characteristics and Formation of A High-Arctic Proglacial Icing

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Abstract:

Abstract

Well-known from permafrost hydrology, icings (naled or Aufeis) are also frequently encountered at the margins of high-latitude glaciers. The morphology of a proglacial icing at Scott Turnerbreen in the Norwegian Arctic archipelago of Svalbard is described, and the process of formation is considered in detail. Ground thermal-regime modelling indicates an equilibrium permafrost depth of at least 200 m in the studied catchment, and it appears unlikely that groundwater contributes to icing formation. Meltwater flow through ice-marginal drainage channels is accompanied by estimated heat fluxes of up to about 190 W m−2, suggesting that stored meltwater may continue to percolate through thawed sub-channel sediments when surface runoff is absent during winter. A hydraulic conductivity of 6.9 × 10−3 m s−1 is implied, which is consistent with other studies of glacier drainage systems. The long residence time of winter-draining meltwater, and solute rejection by refreezing water, account for high observed concentrations of solute in interstitial water in the icing. It has often been asserted that the presence of a proglacial icing indicates that a glacier is polythermal. However, as Scott Turnerbeen is entirely non-temperate, the presence of an icing cannot always be treated as a reliable guide to the thermal regime of a glacier.

Keywords: Aufeis; hydraulic conductivity; icing; naled; proglacial

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0435-3676.2004.00230.x

Affiliations: 1: Department of Geography, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, UK 2: Bristol Glaciology Centre, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK 3: Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Publication date: October 1, 2004

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