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Race Equality and TCNs, or How to Fight Discrimination with A Discriminatory Law

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Two subjects often fit with difficulty in ‘Fortress Europe’: Equality and Third Country Nationals (TCNs). EC Law presents fundamental weaknesses with regard to TCNs in the intersections between race, religion and nationality discrimination. In particular for non-EU nationals, these three grounds of discrimination can be closely related, and difficult to distinguish. However, they are of great importance for the integration and fair treatment of migrants, which was one of the objectives of the Tampere Programme. This article analyses the extent to which the Race Equality Directive (43/2000/EC) and the Framework Equality Directive (78/2000/EC) provide an effective protection against ‘racial related discrimination’. It suggests that the loopholes of both Directives, together with the current interpretation of Article 12 EC, have institutionalised not only a hierarchy of equalities, but also a hierarchy of peoples, and it explores possible interpretative solutions.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: University of Zaragoza

Publication date: November 1, 2009


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