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Ozonation of the reactive dye intermediate 2‐naphthylamine 3,6,8‐trisulphonic acid (K‐Acid): kinetic assessment, ozonation products and ecotoxicity

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Ozonation of the commercially important, recalcitrant reactive dye intermediate 2‐naphthylamine 3,6,8‐trisulphonic acid (K‐Acid) was investigated. Ozonation performance was examined by following ozone absorption rates and K‐Acid, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon removals. Mean oxidation states and unidentified organic products were also determined. At pH 3, where direct ozone reactions are dominant, the second‐order rate constant between K‐Acid and molecular ozone was determined as 20 m−1 s−1 for steady‐state aqueous ozone concentration. The competition kinetics approach was also adopted where a reference compound, phenol, and K‐Acid were subjected to ozonation. By applying this method, the second‐order reaction rate constant was found to be 76 m−1 s−1. Common oxidation products formed during ozonation at pH 3, pH 7 and pH 7 with 1 mm hydrogen peroxide were identified as methoxy‐phenyl‐oxime, phenol, benzene, benzaldehyde and oxalic acid via high‐performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. Continuous nitrate and sulphate evolution were observed during K‐Acid ozonation as a consequence of the abrupt release and subsequent oxidation of its amino and sulphonate groups. The number and amount of reaction products were most intensive for K‐Acid ozonation at pH 7 with 1 mm hydrogen peroxide. According to the acute toxicity tests conducted with Vibrio fischeri, ozonation products were not less toxic than the original K‐Acid solution that caused only 15% inhibition.

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Publication date: 2012-10-01

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