Skip to main content

Dimensions and dynamics of residential segregation by income in urban Canada, 1991–1996

Buy Article:

$51.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Abstract:

This paper examines the trends in residential segregation by income (post-transfer, pretax income) in the thirty-nine largest Canadian urban areas between 1991 and 1996. The study is motivated by the relative lack of attention paid to residential segregation by income in the Canadian context and by conceptual arguments linking compromised life chances and increased social tensions for the populations of highly segregated cities. We investigated several dimensions of segregation using five different measures (we focus on three of these here given the correlation structure of the measures) to examine changes in segregation between 1991 and 1996, a period characterised by economic recession, cutbacks in social programs and a widening of inequality in market incomes at the national scale. Overall, income segregation increased in most urban areas across all dimensions of segregation during the time period, with particularly high degrees of segregation observed in prairie cities (Winnipeg, Saskatoon and Regina). Of the three largest metropolitan areas (Vancouver, Toronto and Montréal), Montréal was the most consistently segregated. We also find that increases in spatial separation and spatial concentration by income occurred despite the fact that at the national scale, the tax and transfer system appeared to be adequately redressing a rise in inequality in labour and market incomes (as demonstrated by the lack of change in post-transfer national income inequality measures during a period when inequality in market and labour incomes rose sharply). This implies that the lived experience of changes in income distribution are unlikely fully captured by aspatial, national-scale measures and that intra-urban measures with a spatial dimension are an important indicators of inequality in Canadian society.

French
Cet article décrit l'évolution de la ségrégation économique au Canada du début au milieu des années ’90. Cette étude est justifiée par l’absence relative d'attention portée à la ségrégation résidentielle basée sur les revenus dans un contexte canadien et par une argumentation conceptuelle qui met en relation l'augmentation des tensions sociales et la diminution des chances dans la vie pour les gens vivant dans des villes démontrant un plus haut niveau de ségrégation. L'approche consiste à décrire différentes dimensions de la ségrégation économique en calculant cinq mesures différentes. Ensuite, on étudie le changement observé dans ces mesures pour la période de 1991 à 1996 qui comprend une récession économique. De façon générale, la ségrégation économique a augmenté dans la plupart des villes et pour toutes les dimensions durant la période à l'étude alors qu'il n'y a pas de changement mesurable dans l'inégalité du revenu au niveau national. Les résultats suggèrent que la concentration et la séparation spatiales selon la situation socio-économique peuvent exister et être ressenties par les résidents des grandes villes canadiennes sans se refléter par une perturbation équivalente dans les mesures traditionnelles d'inégalité.

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0008-3658.2004.00069.x

Affiliations: 1: Department of Geography, McGill University and Health Analysis and Measurement Group, Statistics Canada, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 2K6 ( ), Email: nancy.ross@mcgill.ca 2: Socioeconomic and Business Analysis Branch, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A 0T6 ( ), Email: christian.houle@statcan.ca 3: Inner City Health Research Unit, St. Michael's Hospital and Department of Geography, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5B 1W8 ( ), Email: jim.dunn@utoronto.ca 4: Health Analysis and Measurement Group, Statistics Canada, Montréal, Québec, Canada H3A 2K6 ( ), Email: mva4@cdc.gov

Publication date: December 1, 2004

bpl/cag/2004/00000048/00000004/art00003
dcterms_title,dcterms_description,pub_keyword
6
5
20
40
5

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more