Incremental Benefit of 80-Lead Electrocardiogram Body Surface Mapping Over the 12-Lead Electrocardiogram in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Without ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction: Results from the Optimal Cardiovascular Diagnostic Evaluation Enabling Faster Treatment of Myocardial Infarction (OCCULT MI) Trial
Abstract:ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:932–939 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Background:
The initial 12-lead (12L) electrocardiogram (ECG) has low sensitivity to detect myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). Yet, early therapies in these patients have been shown to improve outcomes. Objectives:
The Optimal Cardiovascular Diagnostic Evaluation Enabling Faster Treatment of Myocardial Infarction (OCCULT-MI) trial was a multicenter trial comparing a novel 80-lead mapping system (80L) to standard 12L ECG in patients with chest pain and presumed ACS. This secondary analysis analyzed the incremental value of the 80L over the 12L in the detection of high-risk ECG abnormalities (ST-segment elevation or ST depression) in patients with MI and ACS, after eliminating all patients diagnosed with ST-elevation MI (STEMI) by 12L ECG. Methods:
Chest pain patients presenting to one of 12 academic EDs were diagnosed and treated according to the standard care of that site and its clinicians; the clinicians were blinded to 80L results. MI was defined by discharge diagnosis of non–ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA) with an elevated troponin. ACS was defined as discharge diagnosis of NSTEMI or UA with at least one positive test result (troponin, stress test, angiogram) or revascularization procedure. Results:
Of the 1,830 patients enrolled in the trial, 91 patients with physician-diagnosed STEMI and 225 patients with missing 80L or 12L data were eliminated from the analysis; no discharge diagnosis was available for one additional patient. Of the remaining 1,513 patients, 408 had ACS, 206 had MI, and one had missing status. The sensitivity of the 80L was significantly higher than that of the 12L for detecting MI (19.4% vs. 10.4%, p = 0.0014) and ACS (12.3% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.0025). Specificities remained high for both tests, but were somewhat lower for 80L than for 12L for detecting both MI and ACS. Negative and positive likelihood ratios (LR) were not statistically different between groups. In patients with severe disease (defined by stenosis > 70% at catheterization, percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft, or death from any cause), the 80L had significantly higher sensitivity for detecting MI (with equivalent specificity), but not ACS. Conclusions:
Among patients without ST elevation on the 12L ECG, the 80L body surface mapping technology detects more patients with MI or ACS than the 12L, while maintaining a high degree of specificity.