Enzymatic Synthesis of Chiral Phenylalanine Derivatives by a Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Corresponding Amide and Nitrile Substrates with a Multi‐Enzyme System
Mutant α‐amino‐ε‐caprolactam (ACL) racemase (L19V/L78T) from Achromobacter obae with improved substrate specificity toward phenylalaninamide was obtained by directed evolution. The mutant ACL racemase and thermostable mutant D‐amino acid amidase (DaaA) from Ochrobactrum anthropi SV3 co‐expressed in Escherichia coli (pACLmut/pDBFB40) were utilized for synthesis of (R)‐phenylalanine and non‐natural (R)‐phenylalanine derivatives (4‐OH, 4‐F, 3‐F, and 2‐F‐Phe) by dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR). Recombinant E. coli with DaaA and mutant ACL racemase genes catalyzed the synthesis of (R)‐phenylalanine with 84% yield and 99% ee from (RS)‐phenylalaninamide (400 mM) in 22 h. (R)‐Tyrosine and 4‐fluoro‐(R)‐phenylalanine were also efficiently synthesized from the corresponding amide compounds. We also co‐expresed two genes encoding mutant ACL racemase and L‐amino acid amidase from Brevundimonas diminuta in E. coli and performed the efficient production of various (S)‐phenylalanine derivatives. Moreover, 2‐aminophenylpropionitrile was converted to (R)‐phenylalanine by DKR using a combination of the non‐stereoselective nitrile hydratase from recombinamt E. coli and mutant ACL racemase and DaaA from E. coli encoding mutant ACL racemase and DaaA genes.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2012-11-26