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Democracy and the Multitude: Spinoza against Negri

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Abstract:

Negri celebrates a conception of democracy in which the concrete powers of individual humans are not alienated away, but rather are added together: this is a democracy of the multitude. But how can the multitude act without alienating anyone's power? To answer this difficulty, Negri explicitly appeals to Spinoza. Nonetheless, in this paper, I argue that Spinoza's philosophy does not support Negri's project. I argue that the Spinozist multitude avoids internal hierarchy through the mediation of political institutions and not in spite of them; nor do these institutions merely emanate from the multitude as it is, but rather they structure, restrain and channel its passions. In particular, the required institutions are not those of a simple direct democracy. There may be other non-Spinozist arguments on which Negri can ground his theory, but he cannot legitimately defend his conception of the democratic multitude by appeal to Spinoza.

Keywords: DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS; MULTITUDE; NEGRI; POWER; RADICAL DEMOCRACY; SPINOZA

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3167/th.2012.5913103

Publication date: June 1, 2012

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