Taste as a sense and as an aesthetic judgment has always been integral to the restaurant dining experience, an experience that is itself a locus of material culture rich in sociocultural symbolism. Chefs around the world are beginning to play with taste by not only manipulating the
sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami tastes perceived by the papillae on the tongue, but also by manipulating the taste>memory>emotion reaction invoked by all sensory perception. Two favorite new ingredients are time (which often takes the form of history, or fermentation) and place
(which often takes the form of geography, or culture). From Grant Achatz at Next in Chicago to René Redzepi at Noma in Copenhagen to Ferran Adrià at El Bulli in Catalunya, the world's greatest chefs are serving up a new form of multisensory satiety and satisfaction.