Protamine 2 Precursors and Processing
Abstract:Protamine 2 (P2) is synthesised as a precursor protein (pre-P2) which by proteolysis is processed to generate the mature components of the protamine 2 family of proteins (HP2, HP3 and HP4). In infertile patients, abnormal processing of the protamine 2 precursors has been suggested by the detection of an increased presence of precursor forms. However, the presence of small detectable amounts of precursor proteins has been demonstrated also in normal sperm samples, although the variation of pre-P2 in individual human sperm cells had not yet been explored. In the present manuscript we perform a mini-review describing what is known about protamine 2 precursors and P2 processing. In addition, we by immunofluorescence demonstrate the existence of a marked variation in the presence and abundance of pre-P2 in individual sperm cells.
Keywords: Chromatin condensation; Gene; Pregnancy; Spermatozoon; TUNEL Assay; cytoplasmic fractions; density gradient; histones; nucleoprotamine; oligospermic sperm; precursor Protamine 2; protamines; proteolysis; sonication-resistant nuclei; sperm; sperm chromatin; sperm chromatin maturation; sperm nuclear protein; spermatids; spermatozoon; spermiogenesis
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 2011
- Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function.