The Clinical Utility of the Protamine 1/Protamine 2 Ratio in Sperm
Abstract:During spermiogenesis, human sperm undergo a dramatic reorganization of the chromatin in which canonical histones are replaced by two types of protamines, protamine 1 (P1) and protamine (P2). P1 and P2 are expressed approximately at a 1:1 ratio in healthy men. Alteration of this ratio is associated with male infertility. Patients with an abnormal P1/P2 ratio generally exhibit diminished semen quality, lower fertilization ability, and lower pregnancy rates when undergoing in vitro fertilization. Many studies have reported an elevated incidence of abnormal P1/P2 ratios in infertile men compared to fertile controls, and have evaluated the relationship between infertility and abnormal protamination; however, no prospective study has investigated the normal range of the P1/P2 ratio in men from the general population. Here, we report a P1/P2 reference range of 0.54 to 1.43 in a fertile, normozoospermic population. This rather wide normal range of P1/P2 led us to the conclusion that abnormal protamination is more likely indicative of other perturbations during spermatogenesis than the underlying mechanism to cause infertility. Alternatively, protamine expression may act as a checkpoint mechanism and thus be indirectly related to semen quality.
Keywords: Angleman syndromes; Fertilization; Loci; Semen; Sperm chromatin; aneuploidy; canonical histones; chromatin remodeling; cleavage rate; embryogenesis; embryonic transcription; epigenetics; gametes; male infertility; normozoospermic; perturbation; protamination; protamine; somatic histones; spermiogenesis
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2011-08-01
- Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function.