The Regulatory Effects of Glutamine on Illness and Health
Glutamine (GLN), which is the most abundant free amino acid of the human body, is an important cellular fuel and an essential precursor for the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). GLN plays a regulatory role in several cell specific processes, such as metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, and respiratory burst. Severe GLN deficiencies usually occur rapidly in critical illness. GLN has regulatory capacity in immune and cell modulation, and GLN reduces morbidity and mortality in critical illness. The expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) is vital to cellular and tissue protection in stress or injury. GLN can function as a metabolic fuel and stress-signaling molecule in illness and injury via HSP. GLN has the ability to enhance HSP expression in injury, regulate the expression of some genes related to metabolism, signal transduction, cell defense and repair, and activate intracellular signaling pathways. The focus of this review is to describe how GLN participates in the regulation of illness and health and regulates the expression of HSP.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2011-07-01
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- Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function.