Amphipathic Antimicrobial Peptides - from Biophysics to Therapeutics?
Abstract:Amphipathic peptides are accommodated within the diffuse gradient of polarity that characterizes the interfacial regions of phospholipid bilayer membranes. Interfacial membrane interactions are key to the diverse biological functions and activities of these peptides, which encompass a large class of antimicrobial peptides including the helical peptides magainin, melittin, and RTA3 derived from the commensal bacterium Streptococcus mitis. For these peptides in vitro efficacy (high antimicrobial activity with minimal mammalian cell toxicity, equivalent to high potential therapeutic index; PTI), can be broadly understood in relation to the thermodynamics of interfacial binding and membrane disruption in membranes having surface charges that correspond to bacterial and mammalian cell membranes, respectively. Peptides with disrupted amphipathicity resulting from a positively charged amino acid residue on the non-polar helix face, can have greatly enhanced PTI, although a balance of amphipathicity, hydrophobicity and positive charge is required for retention of high antimicrobial activity. These observations are illustrated with recent examples from the literature, and studies on RTA3 and magainin analogues from our laboratories. Despite the identification and optimisation of peptides with very good PTI, a focus on addressing toxicity upon systemic administration and poor in vivo efficacy is likely to be required to translate growing understanding of the relationships between peptide interfacial activity and effects on cells, into novel systemic therapeutics.
Keywords: (GUV); (H11); (LUV); Antimicrobial peptide; CF; DOPC; ELEC-TROSTATIC BALANCE; EUKARYOTIC CELLS; FPE-doped; Fmoc; Gram negative bacteria; HPLC; MIC value; MPEx tool; PC; POPC bilayers; PROKARYOTIC CELLS; RTA3; V681-V13K; amphipathic; amphipathic helix; colistin; haemolytic; hydrophobic; magainin; melittin; membrane partitioning; partitioning; peptide; thermodynamics
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2010-11-01
- Protein & Peptide Letters publishes short papers in all important aspects of protein and peptide research, including structural studies, recombinant expression, function, synthesis, enzymology, immunology, molecular modeling, drug design etc. Manuscripts must have a significant element of novelty, timeliness and urgency that merit rapid publication. Reports of crystallisation, and preliminary structure determinations of biologically important proteins are acceptable. Purely theoretical papers are also acceptable provided they provide new insight into the principles of protein/peptide structure and function.