The reaction of the primary amine species with the carbohydrate's reducing end moieties is a kind of special reductive amination reactions which need acid catalysis. The rate equation and selectivity equation of this kind of reactions were given by the kinetic and thermodynamic theories, which can predict the influence of the reaction temperature, pKa of used amine and pH on the reaction rate and yield. Based on this theoretical model, researchers can design their route and set the appropriate reaction conditions for immobilization of the carbohydrates or preparation of the carbohydrate conjugates.
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