Application of Innate Immune Molecules for a New Class of Drugs: Infection, Inflammation and Beyond
Abstract:The innate immune system plays an important role systemically and locally in infectious and inflammatory diseases. Vaccines, vaccine adjuvants and anti-inflammatory drugs were developed by understanding mechanisms of the innate immune system and causative factors of infection and inflammatory diseases. Pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, and their downstream signals have great potential as targets of therapeutics because they are involved in numerous diseases. Furthermore, proteolytic systems such as autophagy and immunoproteasomes play important roles in the innate immune system, making them potential therapeutic targets also. By taking advantage of the immune system, humankind has made a great effort to develop new therapeutic and preventive medicines. Accordingly, we have reported several studies on the development of vaccines and adjuvants based on novel mechanistic strategies. Additionally, we have elucidated the mechanism underlying an interaction between innate immunity and the endocrine system. This review introduces the possible use of innate immune molecules for the development of immunomodulatory drugs and the involvement of the immune system in endocrine metabolic diseases to discuss future applications of innate immune molecules to therapeutics of various inflammatory diseases.
Keywords: Innate immunity; Monophosphoryl lipid A; Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor; Toll-like receptors; adjuvant; carboxymethyl cellulose; dsDNA; imiquimod; immunoproteasome; oligodeoxynucleotide; proteolytic systems; thyroid; vaccine
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: March 1, 2011
- This journal is devoted to timely reviews of experimental and clinical studies in the field of endocrine, metabolic, and immune disorders. Specific emphasis is placed on humoral and cellular targets for natural, synthetic, and genetically engineered drugs that enhance or impair endocrine, metabolic, and immune parameters and functions. Topics related to the neuroendocrine-immune axis are given special emphasis in view of the growing interest in stress-related, inflammatory, autoimmune, and degenerative disorders.