Protein-Protein Interactions and Subunit Composition of Ion Channels
Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that enable the passive flow of inorganic ions by forming hydrated pores across biological membranes. Their pore-forming alpha subunits determine ion permeation and provide the machinery for gating. In addition, channel class specific accessory proteins termed beta, gamma and delta subunits have been found that modulate or even determine key properties like channel gating (e.g. activation, inactivation properties), surface expression, targeting and stability. Moreover, some of these subunits constitute binding sites for toxins as well as for therapeutic drugs. With the development of more powerful proteomic and molecular biology-based methods, a vastly increasing number of proteins interacting with ion channels has recently been described. These results are providing novel insight into ion channel function and at the same time challenging classical concepts of beta subunits and ion channel drug targets. They are also raising questions about functional validation and reliability of these methods. This review focuses on the potentials and limitations of modern “-omic” protein-protein interaction analyses and their application to ion channels. After recapitulating fundamental thermodynamic and biochemical principles underlying protein-protein interactions, current methods for their systematic identification are critically reviewed. Selected examples of newly characterized ion channel complexes will then be discussed to illustrate the implications for molecular understanding as well as for the effective selection and screening of ion channel drug targets.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2008-04-01
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- CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry of contemporary molecular targets involved in neurological and central nervous system (CNS) disorders e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes. Each issue of the journal will contain a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics on drug targets involved in neurological and CNS disorders. As the discovery, identification, characterization and validation of novel human drug targets for neurological and CNS drug discovery continues to grow; this journal will be essential reading for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and development.