Recent Advances in the Development of Catalytic Inhibitors of Human DNA Topoisomerase IIα As Novel Anticancer Agents

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Abstract:

DNA topoisomerases comprise an important family of enzymes that catalyse the induction of topological changes (e.g. relaxation/ supercoiling, catenation/decatenation and knotting/unknotting) in the DNA molecule. These enzymes perform their functions by creating transient either single-stranded or double-stranded breaks in the DNA molecule. Due to their ability to modulate the topology of the DNA molecule, DNA topoisomerases play vital roles in replication, transcription, chromosome separation and segregation, and thus represent an important collection of design targets for novel anticancer drugs. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the development of catalytic inhibitors of the human topoisomerase IIα enzyme - an important member of the DNA topoisomerase family - as potential novel anticancer agents. The group of catalytic topoII inhibitors is classified into four types according to their molecular mechanism of action: inhibitors that bind to the ATP binding site, inhibitors that prevent the ATP hydrolysis step and trap the enzyme in a closed clamp, inhibitors that block the DNA cleavage and inhibitors that prevent the enzyme binding to the DNA. One of the important considerations highlighted throughout this review is the structure-based perspective of inhibitor design, giving the reader a medicinal chemist's perspective on this vibrant and active field of drug design research.
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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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