If you are experiencing problems downloading PDF or HTML fulltext, our helpdesk recommend clearing your browser cache and trying again. If you need help in clearing your cache, please click here . Still need help? Email help@ingentaconnect.com

Reproductive Effects of Low-to-Moderate Medical Radiation Exposure

$63.10 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:

Abstract:

Medical radiation from x-rays and nuclear medicine is the largest man-made source of radiation exposure in Western countries, accounting for a mean effective dose of 3.0 mSv per capita per year, comparable to the radiologic risk of 150 chest x-rays, and in many cases gonads fall in the imaging field, with > 20 millions examinations per year in US being abdominal and pelvic CT, and >0.5 million barium enema. Of the over 7 million workers exposed to medical radiation, special attention has been paid to those working in the interventional cardiology and radiology labs, with high and increasing professional exposures, two-to three times higher than diagnostic radiologists. Thus, adverse effects of radiation exposure are well worth of the scientific community's interest. Aims of this review are: 1) to assess gonad dose to patients undergoing diagnostic testing or interventional fluoroscopy therapy and in professionally exposed interventional fluoroscopists; and 2) to evaluate the evidence linking radiation exposure in the low-to-moderate range (besides the radiotherapy high dose range) to adverse reproductive effects. In patients, the gonad radiation exposure can reach 5 mSv for a lower limb angiography, 20 mSv for a CT pelvis and hips, and 36 (in females) to 90 mSv (for males) for a lower gastrointestinal series. For interventional cardiologists, the gonad dose (below lead apron) is in the same order of magnitude of the shielded thyroid dose, with a median of 50 to 100 microSievert per cine-angiography procedure. The dose can be ten-fold higher for a complex interventional procedure. This leads to a cumulative exposure in the 0.5-1 Sv range over a professional lifetime of 30 years. At present, the epidemiological approach provided inconclusive results, inadequate for a robust evidence-based advice to exposed subjects, since large groups followed-up for decades would be required to detect a small increase in risk. A molecular epidemiology approach and/or the use of integrated biomarkers of reproductive health (e.h., reproductive hormone balance, sperm quality, sperm DNA damage) might be more fruitful in future research focused in the low-to-moderate dose range (< 1000 mSv) of greatest interest for diagnostic and professional exposures.

Keywords: Fertility; offspring; radiation; reproduction; workers

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986712804485692

Publication date: December 1, 2012

More about this publication?
  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
Related content

Tools

Favourites

Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more