Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis in Solid Organ Transplantation
Human Cytomegalovirus is a commonly identified herpesvirus that establishes a state of latent infection in the majority of the population by adulthood. A coordinated immune response involving both the innate and adaptive immune system prevents active viral replication and disease. Cellular immunity appears particularly important to control of viremia requiring both a CMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response. Solid organ transplant recipients are particularly susceptible to CMV related disease due to the immunosuppression necessary to prevent organ rejection, with patients receiving T cell depleting therapies being at highest risk. The deleterious outcomes of CMV in organ transplant recipients result from both direct cytopathic and indirect immune-modulatory effects of CMV viral replication. The recognition of the negative effects of CMV in solid organ transplantation has resulted in the routine prophylaxis of organ recipients with antiviral nucleoside analogues. The appropriate duration of therapy is still controversial although guidelines do exist. The ability to assay an individual immune response to CMV should allow for tailored duration of therapy in the future.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2012-12-01
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