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Nicotinamide Supplementation Protects Gestational Diabetic Rats by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Enhancing Immune Responses

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Abstract:

Gestational diabetes (GD) is a common complication during pregnancy. Metabolic changes in GD affect fetal development and fetal glucose homeostasis. The present study utilized a rat model of GD to evaluate the effects of nicotinamide on diabetic parameters; antioxidant gene expression viz, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by neutrophils and enhancement of lymphocyte mediated immune response. Nicotinamide (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was orally supplemented to gestational diabetic rats from days 6 through 20 of gestation. After GD induction, the control group had elevated glucose and reduced insulin while nicotinamide (100 & 200 mg/kg) supplementation reversed these changes. The same doses of nicotinamide upregulated mRNA expressions of SOD and CAT genes in liver but reduced the oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or E. coli activation. Nicotinamide (100 & 200 mg/kg) supplementation also increased expression of activated T helper (CD4+CD25+) cells and induced proliferation of splenocytes. These findings provide evidence for utilizing nicotinamide as supplement or adjunct to support existing therapeutic agents for gestational diabetes and in pregnant individuals with weakened immune systems.

Keywords: Activated T helper cells (CD4+CD25+); Gestational diabetes (GD); catalase; gestational diabetes; glucose homeostasis; nicotinamide; oxidative burst; rat model of GD; splenocyte proliferation; superoxide dismutase

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986712803530449

Publication date: October 1, 2012

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.
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