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Predictive Value of Biomarkers in Patients with Heart Failure

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Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome with high morbidity and mortality while, myocardial injury, hemodynamic overload, genetic, neurohormonal, inflammatory and biochemical factors are implicated in the development and progression of the disease. Interestingly, despite the development of several diagnostic tests, HF diagnosis remains clinical, based on symptoms and signs, while there is a poor relationship between symptoms and the prognosis of HF. Several biomarkers have recently been examined for their efficacy to predict outcome and assess prognosis of HF patients. The best studied for its prognostic ability sub-group of biomarkers is the neurohormones including the natriuretic peptides, the components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the catecholamines. Others sub-groups of biomarkers include inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, extracellular matrix remodeling markers and myocardial injury markers (such as troponins I and T). Nevertheless, it is difficult to access a single biomarker fulfilling our need to evaluate prognosis and guiding treatment in acute or chronic HF patients, thus the predictive ability of combined biomarkers is recently under research. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical significance of these biomarkers. In the present review, we will discuss the usefulness and significance of potentials or established biomarkers in HF patients focusing on their ability to predict adverse events, morbidity and mortality.
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Keywords: Atherosclerosis; biological markers; endothelial dysfunction; endothelium; heart failure; inflammation; morbidity; mortality; outcome; oxidative stress; prognosis

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Vasilissis Sofias 114, TK 115 28, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Publication date: 2012-06-01

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