Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a multifactorial one consisting of several disorders and represents the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the western societies. Further to our wide knowledge of CVD, the role of atherosclerosis is well known . Several underlying processes
including inflammation, oxidative stress, thrombosis and importantly endothelial dysfunction are responsible for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Thus, multiple biomarkers related to the aforementioned processes have been proposed in order
to monitor CVD . Despite the role of biomarkers at a pathophysiological level, their importance is far more. Recent studies aim to investigate whether a biomarker that could detect quite early the ischemic myocardium as well as define the risk of future events with high sensitivity
and specificity. In addition, the ability to monitor coronary plaque progression before the onset of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a major goal for the management of ischemic heart disease . Over the years, growing evidence has indicated the risk factors for calcific aortic stenosis.
Additional monitoring tools, such as molecular imaging, could improve risk stratification, while assessment of severity and prognosis of patients with chronic aortic regurgitation, are desirable. Importantly, CVD remains the leading cause of premature death in patients with chronic kidney
disease (CKD). Recent evidence suggests that the interaction of “classic” and “nonclassic” cardiovascular risk factors is important contributor in excessive and accelerated CVD in patients with CKD. Currently, there is a growing interest in the role of new biomarkers
that are closely correlated with the aforementioned novel risk factors in CKD population. Furthermore, recent research focuses on the investigation of biomarkers monitoring peripheral artery disease, strongly associated to CVD, as well as biomarkers predicting CVD. Finally, during the last
few years there are data regarding to the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in CVD. miRNAs are expressed in the cardiovascular system and could have crucial roles in normal development and physiology, as well as in disease development. Also, they have been found to participate in cardiovascular disease
pathogenesis including atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias.....
Cardiology Unit, Hippokration Hospital Athens University Medical School Vasilisis Sofias 114, Athens, Greece.
Publication date: June 1, 2012
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