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New Perspectives in Antiplatelet Therapy

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Abstract:

Platelet activation is a complex mechanism of response to vascular injury and atherothrombotic disease, leading to thrombus formation. A wide variety of surface receptors -integrins, leucine-rich family receptors, G protein coupled receptors, tyrosine kinase receptors- and intraplatelet molecules support and regulate platelet activation. They are potential targets of antiplatelet therapy for the prevention and treatment of arterial thrombosis. Despite the overall clinical benefit of established antiplatelet drugs targeting cyclooxigenase-1 (COX-1), glycoprotein integrin αIIbβ3, and the purinergic P2Y12 receptor of adenosine diphosphate, a significant proportion of treated patients continue to experience recurrent ischaemic events. This may be in partly attributed to insufficient inhibition of platelet activation. In addition, it should not be underestimated that these drugs are not immune from bleeding complications

The substantial progress in understating the regulation of platelet activation has played a key role in the development of novel antiplatelet agents. Current examples of drug under development and evaluation include: novel P2Y12 receptor inhibitors (prasugrel, ticagrelor, cangrelor, and elinogrel), thrombin receptor PAR-1 antagonists (vorapaxar, atopaxar), new integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and inhibitors targeting the thromboxane receptor (TP), phosphodiesterases, the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI, and intraplatelet signalling molecules. This review summarizes the mechanisms of action and current clinical evaluation of these novel antiplatelet agents



Keywords: Acute Coronay Syndrome; Antiplatelet Therapy; Atherothrombosis; Cardiovascular Disease; GP IIb/IIIa; Glycoproteins; New Compounds; PAR; Pharmacology; Phosphodiesterases; Purinerig Receptors; Thromboxane

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986712803414240

Publication date: January 1, 2012

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  • Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.

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