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Small intestinal injury caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or aspirin is an epoch making topic in clinical field with the aid of new devices, capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy to look at small intestine directly. However, the injury has been reported
in animals since more than 40 years ago. Proposed mechanisms are impairment of mucosal defense through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) resulting in deficiency of prostaglandins, and mitochondrial disorder. Possible aggressive factors are NSAIDs/aspirin themselves, bile, and enterobacteria.
Translocation of enterobacteria through the mucosa impaired integrity may be the first step of the injury. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides stimulate toll-like receptor-4 in macrophages, which increases proinflammatory cytokines through MyD88 signaling pathway. Finally neutrophils are activated
and the small intestinal mucosa is injured with the attacks of NSAIDs/aspirin themselves, bile, and proteolytic enzymes and active oxygen species released by neutrophils. Candidates of treatment tools are prostaglandin derivatives, mucoprotective drugs, probiotics, and mitochondrial protective
drugs such as metronidazole and cyclosporin A. Further clinical studies are needed to elucidate the effect in humans.
Current Medicinal Chemistry covers all the latest and outstanding developments in medicinal chemistry and rational drug design. Each issue contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of the current topics in medicinal chemistry. Current Medicinal Chemistry is an essential journal for every medicinal chemist who wishes to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments.